Nevertheless, franchisees often say that a franchisor and its franchisees should be subject to another standard, since they act as entities and not as competitors. Sometimes, on the basis of this logic, the courts have upheld agreements on non-poaching between franchises. As states move forward, legislators should focus on policies that prohibit non-compete measures for low- and middle-income workers; clarify that non-poaching agreements between franchised companies are illegal; Rising costs for businesses that break the rules; and create stronger ways to enforce the law. By preventing franchises from recruiting qualified staff from another franchise, these agreements can reduce employee salaries and the general wage costs of the franchise. Nevertheless, wages in the industry are already very low. For example, fast food cooks earn an average hourly wage of US$10.39 per hour, or $21,610 per year, according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics.43 Starting in 2017, Illinois has banned non-competition bans against employees earning less than $13 an hour.   Section 27 of the Indian Contract Act has a general blockage of any trade-limiting agreement.  On this basis, it would appear that all non-competition clauses in India are null and void. However, the Indian Supreme Court has clarified that certain non-competition clauses may be in the interests of trade and commerce, and such clauses are not prohibited by Section 27 of the Contract Act and are therefore valid in India.  In particular, only clauses supported by a clear objective, considered beneficial for trade and trade, survive this test.
For example, a co-founder of a start-up who has signed a non-compete clause may be, but if a junior software developer or call center employee signs a non-compete clause with the employer, this may not apply. Non-competition prohibitions are enforced in appropriate circumstances in Massachusetts.  Non-competition and non-poaching agreements have contributed to this trend. A small but growing number of studies shows that if workers are forced to sign such agreements, their ability to negotiate for better wages is limited because they cannot leave a job for a competitor – or even threaten to quit a job. A scientific study showed that workers` wages in states with strict non-competition conditions were significantly lower than in countries where competition agreements were the most moderate. The study also showed that this wage gap has narrowed, as 10-year-old workers recommend a ban on all non-recourse agreements between franchisors and franchisees. On June 2, 2020, the U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals for the First Circuit issued some instructions and a warning story for the ignorant employer.