The imported share of average food consumption in the United States was less than 8% in the early 1980s and stabilized by about 11% in 2001 (Jerardo, 2003). Since then, however, several trade agreements, including the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) between the United States, Canada and Mexico, have resulted in an increase in the share of food imports in the U.S. food supply and a steady increase in per capita spending on food imports (Figure 1.4). According to estimates by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, the importance of U.S. food consumption in 2013 was 19% on the basis of volume and 20% on a value basis.1 In addition to foodstuffs originating from beyond the United States, another important consideration is the distance produced in the country, from place of origin to consumption (food miles). Some recent studies have shown that the impact of greenhouse gases from food transport is much less than the impact of the production phase (meat and vegetables); Weber and Matthews, 2008). However, food imports and transportation are generally linked to increased packaging use and may increase the rate of food waste due to deterioration and damage during transportation or by rejecting consumer products imported from countries with lower safety standards (Brooks et al., 2009a). The global « cold chain » of refrigeration has also increased consumer food choices, but has also contributed to food waste across the fork farm range (Heard and Miller, 2016). If you measure wealth relative to per capita income, the concept of technology is influence by dollar. The concept of sustainable development was introduced in the 1980s, arguing that development is not necessarily harmful to the environment and that the fight against poverty is also essential for environmental protection (World Commission on Environment and Development, 1987). In keeping with this idea of sustainable development, Grossman and Krueger (1991) introduced the concept of ECC into their groundbreaking study of the potential effects of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). Critics of NAFTA have argued that the economic growth that would result from the introduction of free trade would harm Mexico`s environment.
Rather, Grossman and Krueger (1991) argued that higher incomes would improve the quality of the environment in Mexico rather than reduce it. To support this argument, they made an empirical analysis, using the GEMS database, of the link between per capita income and pollution in many cities around the world.